In many old houses on the unheated basement ceiling is not insulated. Arranging in this place thermal insulation, not only to limit the escape of heat from the house and will reduce the costs of heating, but also we will be warmer in the foot.
Few today formed single-family homes with basements – only about 10%. This underground floor simply no longer needed. So it can be classified as precious relics twenty years ago.

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Still, there are many old houses that are unheated basement. Few of their respective owners reflects on the impact that this has on heating costs. Therefore, most of these houses, even the warming of external walls and roof and replacing windows with new ones, remains cold. The heat escapes not only upward but also downward to the basement, and from there into the ground.

The resulting losses may amount to 20% of the total heat loss in a house. In this way, expensive energy is wasted, and residents are exposed to a permanent thermal discomfort in the skid interiors. The immediate cause of this condition is too large temperature difference between the air and the surface of the floor. Cold floor, despite the fact that the heating works properly, creates a feeling of coolness.

So when the house is located unheated basement, było- best to insulate it in its entirety. However, this is a very expensive venture. It is therefore necessary to separate it should be adequate thermal insulation layer of warm located above the ground floor rooms.

Place on warming

Well insulated ceiling over the basement will make the interior of the ground floor will be warmer and cool cellar remains a place that still can be used as a fuel store or pantry.

Heat insulation material may be arranged in two ways.

From the bottom. This is the best solution under Polish climatic conditions, when allowed no height basement. The roof is insulated from the outside, or from the colder. This method also allows you to easily eliminate thermal bridges, the place through which heat escapes from your home quickly. Quite it is also important that the insulation works are easy to make and only conducted in the basement.

If the basement walls are not insulated, insulate the floor between the ground floor and the basement, you still need to insulate the rim on the inside and extend the thermal insulation of the walls of the ground floor at least 50 cm below the ceiling of the basement.

Warning! The best thing would insulate the basement walls entirely from the outside. It is, however, very expensive and requires a dangerous for building excavating underground walls. For this reason such repair work must be carried out under the supervision of the constructor.

From the top. Cellar can also be isolated from the rest of the house, arranging a layer of insulation on the ceiling. It’s much more complicated undertaking than the warming from the bottom. It requires shutdown for maintenance of all ground floor rooms of Use.

The downside of this solution is the reduction of the living areas of the insulation thickness, the new screed and finishing layers. Therefore, this solution should be taken into account only when a major renovation is planned for the whole house.

Heat insulation material

In unheated cellar temperature will be about 5-15 ° C, depending on whether and how they are thermally insulated outer walls of the basement, as well as the effectiveness of the ventilation and insulation of the floor above the cellar. Therefore, the thickness of the thermal insulation layer should not be less than 10 cm.

When deciding on the warming of the floor, it is necessary to remember that the thermal insulation layer will reduce the height of the basement. Therefore, choosing the material warming remember that the smaller the coefficient of thermal conductivity x (lambda) for the insulation, the less insulation thickness can be used.

Foam thermal conductivity x is from 0.031 to 0.042 W / (mK). The advantage of polystyrene is less than 2% water absorption, allowing you to use it in areas exposed to moisture. It does not absorb water, and contact with it does not rot and will not change its insulating properties.

It is best to apply a variety EPS plate 100. The insulation of the floor above the cellar from the bottom can also be used Styrofoam finished chipboard. Then, the surface does not need to be plastered.

Mineral wool has a low thermal conductivity x – ranges from 0.030 to 0.045 W / (mK). Warming basements recommended for hard stone wool slabs with improved hydrophobic properties, which the fibers do not absorb moisture from the air. The plates can have a hardened surface layer, or may be finished on one wire mesh or foil. The resilient backing layer adheres closely to the substrate, so there arise thermal bridges, and the surface layer is hard, which makes it a good base for laying the plaster.

Polystyrene foam insulation

Styrofoam boards fastened directly into the dry and cleaned surface of the floor with a suitable adhesive or water-soluble glues asphalt (without organic solvents that could cause their destruction). It is important that the adhesive is covered the entire surface of the panels; You can not be left beneath the free space (at the junction of the outer wall).

It is easiest to arrange one layer of expanded polystyrene boards with straight edges. You can use the discs with edges milled tongue and groove. Their connections are tighter, but there’s no need.

After sticking, warming plates can just leave or finish them. Then they laid on the reinforcing mesh and cover them thin-layer plaster.

Mineral wool insulation

It is definitely harder than polystyrene foam. If it is laid from the bottom to the ceiling is attached to metal profiles are C-shaped, and between them is placed a mineral wool slab. You can also attach the waterproof drywall and the space between them and the ceiling to fill wool.

A method of warming up in a largely depends on the finish floor the ground floor. When her floor on joists, it can be disassembled and laid the wool between the joists. If the floor is laid directly on the floor, it is necessary to remove it and execute the floor on joists. On the ceiling joists are placed with a height depends on the thickness warming. The space between them is filled with mineral wool. Only then is attached to a board or chipboard, and on them puts any floor.

Evidence for heat retention

To check the quality of made warming of the floor, you should do an infrared. They shall be carried out using a thermal imaging camera. This is a special device that enables detection of all places, through which heat escapes from inside the house. The study is based on a comparison of the surface temperature of structural elements of the building.

Pictures taken with an infrared camera called thermograms. They expose any shortcomings and errors regulations which then result in increased heat escaping from the building. Thermal measurements help to identify defects in thermal insulation – usually prove to them a break between panels of polystyrene or mineral wool, or their improper arrangement. On the thermogram taken outside such places are seen as warmer – by not escaping the heat.

Thermal study is well done before warming the ceiling. By the way, you can also check the quality of previous work thermo-modernization.

Profits from the basement ceiling insulation

The majority of existing buildings above basement ceiling is not insulated or insufficiently insulated. His U-value of about 1.1-1.3 W / (m 2 K), and in accordance with current regulations should not be greater than 0.6 W / (m 2 K). It is hard to imagine how much heat escapes into the cold basement, and from there into the ground. So it’s best to follow the example.

Suppose that we have a basement house with attic of the surface contour of the outer walls of 180 m2, which is about 150-160 m2 of usable space. The ceiling above the cellar has an area of ​​76 m2, and its U-value of 1.2 W / (m 2 K). The amount of energy wasted annually through the ceiling is 8551 kWh. We’ll pay for it in 2140 zł (when heated gas), 856 zł (for heating coal), 3851 zł (for heating fuel oil).

After warming layer of styrofoam 10 cm thick, the ceiling will have a U-value equal to 0.29 W / (m 2 K). The amount of energy lost per year will be only 2058 kWh. Its cost will amount to 515 zł (for gas), 206 zł (for coal) and 926 zł (for oil).

Necessary after warming the ceiling

After warming the floor over unheated basement there will be a few degrees cooler. The temperature should not fall below 5 ° C. Still, worth a special pipe coverings insulate the ducts of mechanical ventilation duct to the fireplace, central heating and pipe, which flows hot water.

To reduce the loss of heat escaping, you should also install tight and warm door closing entrance leading to the basement.